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HS 101, HS 102 World Civilizations: HS 101

Resources for World Civilizations.

Textbook and Other Info

 
Primary sources allow researchers to get as close as possible to original ideas, events and empirical studies as possible. Such sources may include expositions of creative ideas, first hand or contemporary accounts of events, publication of the results of empirical observations or studies, and other items that may form the basis of further research. Examples include:
  • Novels, plays, poems, works of art, popular culture
  • diaries, narratives, autobiographies, memoirs, speeches
  • Government documents, patents
  • Data sets, technical reports, experimental research results
 
Secondary sources analyze, review or restate information in primary resources or other secondary resources. Even sources presenting facts or descriptions about events are secondary unless they are based on direct participation or observation. Moreover, secondary sources often rely on other secondary sources and standard disciplinary methods to reach results, and they provide the principle sources of analysis about primary sources. Examples include:
  • Biographies
  • Review articles and literature reviews
  • Scholarly articles that don't present new experimental research results
  • Historical studies
 
Tertiary resources provide overviews of topics by synthesizing information gathered from other resources. Tertiary resources often provide data in a convenient form or provide information with context by which to interpret it. Examples include:
  • Encyclopedias
  • Chronologies
  • Almanacs
  • Textbooks